Journal of Global Change Data & Discovery2019.3(2):175-181

[PDF] [DATASET]

Citation:Shi, W. J., Wang M. L.Dataset of Strategic Transformation Regionalization for the Agricultural Comprehensive Development of Ningxia, China[J]. Journal of Global Change Data & Discovery,2019.3(2):175-181 .DOI: 10.3974/geodp.2019.02.08 .

Dataset of Strategic Transformation Regionalization for the Agricultural Comprehensive Development of Ningxia, China

Shi, W. J.1,2*  Wang, M. L.1,2

1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;

2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

 

Abstract: Based on the single target and type of existing agricultural divisions, this dataset taking Ningxia as research region, integrates the spatial data of cultivated land, climate, water resources, topography, landform, project layout and ecological planning related to agriculture, and devises 13 indices using the geographic comprehensive regionalization method. The indices considered a combination of dynamic and static, qualitative and quantitative, and agricultural and ecological factors. Seven first-level zonings and 24 secondary zones (sub-categories) had been identified. The dataset was archived in .shp and .kmz data format with a data size of 1.23 MB (0.98 MB in the compressed file). Related analysis results were published in the Journal of Geographical Sciences in 2016 (Vol. 26, No. 12)

Keywords: Ningxia; agricultural comprehensive development; regionalization; indices; Journal of Geographical Sciences

1 Introduction

Since 1988, China has begun to implement agricultural comprehensive development (ACD). This measure has made positive contributions to strengthening agricultural infrastructure construction, ensuring national food security and promoting farmers’ continued income growth. However, the previous ACD layout covered most of the agricultural counties in the country, which has caused some phenomena that do not match the current resources and environment in China in the subsequent development process. For example, the water resource carrying capacity is not effectively considered, the regional soil conditions are not fully considered, and the comprehensive ecological management is insufficient. With the development of China’s economy and society, new forms and new challenges in the process of ACD have formed.

Since the founding of New China, the country has carried out three large-scale national agricultural zoning works[1]. To solve the problem of agricultural district development and rational allocation and to accelerate the development of agricultural production, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of P. R. China began to require agricultural zoning in various provinces in 1953[23]. In the following decades, the comprehensive agricultural zoning was initially completed, and the research on the more detailed types of agricultural regions was further deepened[4]. In the 1990s, the theoretical system of comprehensive agricultural zoning in China was gradually formed[5]; after entering the 21st century, research on agricultural suitability zoning based on natural agricultural conditions and quantitative models and methods also gradually developed[613].

2 Metadata of Dataset

The metadata of the “Dataset of strategical transformation regionalization for the agricultural comprehensive development in Ningxia Hui autonomous region of China”[14] is summarized in Table 1.

3 Methods

3.1 Algorithm Principle

The indices were considered in combinations of dynamic and static, qualitative and quantitative, and agricultural and ecological factors. These were based on the spatial characteristics of the different climate resources, cultivated land resources, water resources, topography, landforms and ecology of the irrigated area of North Ningxia, the central arid zone and the southern loess hilly region. There were seven of indices: cropland, water resources, climate, terrain, landform, ACD project, and ecological planning. GIS spatial analysis method was used to divide the different functional areas into township (town)-based units.

Table 1  Metadata summary of the “Dataset of strategical transformation regionalization for the agricultural comprehensive development in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China”

Items

Description

Dataset full name

Dataset of strategical transformation regionalization for the agricultural comprehensive development of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China

Dataset short name

AgriCDRegionalizationNX

Authors

Shi, W. J. S-3255-2018, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, shiwj@lreis.ac.cn

Cui, J. Y., Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, cuijiaying115@163.com

Geographical region

Ningxia Hui autonomous region in China

Data format

.dbf, .prj, .sbn, .shp, .shx, .xml, .kml

Data size

1.23 MB (0.98 MB after compression)

Data files

The dataset consists of eight files, stored in .shp and .kmz formats

Foundations

National Natural Science Foundation of China (41371002, 41301355, 41401113); Chinese Academy of Science (XDA05090310, KFJ-EW-STS-019-01)

Data publisher

Global Change Research Data Publishing & Repository, http://www.geodoi.ac.cn

Address

No. 11A, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China

Data sharing policy

Data from the Global Change Research Data Publishing & Repository includes metadata, datasets (data products), and publications (in this case, in the Journal of Global Change Data & Discovery). Data sharing policy includes: (1) Data are openly available and can be freely downloaded via the Internet; (2) End users are encouraged to use Data subject to citation; (3) Users, who are by definition also value-added service providers, are welcome to redistribute Data subject to written permission from the GCdataPR Editorial Office and the issuance of a Data redistribution license; and (4) If Data are used to compile new datasets, the ‘ten percent principal’ should be followed such that Data records utilized should not surpass 10% of the new dataset contents, while sources should be clearly noted in suitable places in the new dataset[15]

In the dataset, we selected the percentage of areas of cropland, basic farmland, and high-yielding fields in each town to represent the proportion of cropland or high-quality cropland. For water resources, the percentage of areas with a recharge modulus greater than 200,000 m3/(a·km2) or lower than 10,000 m3/(a·km2) were used to represent the volume of water resources used for agricultural irrigation. For climate, we chose the percentage area with precipitation lower than 200 mm to represent the amount of precipitation. For terrain, we selected the percentage of areas above 15° or 25° slope to represent the limiting factor of the terrain. For geomorphology, the percentage of areas of mountains, hills, and plains were selected to analyze the suitability of ACD. For the distribution of ACD projects, the percentage of areas of high-standard farmland projects and the planning projects to 2020 represent the development levels of the past and future. For ecological planning, the percentage area devoted to agriculture-related functions was selected as being representative of agricultural importance.

3.2 Technical Route

According to the framework of strategic transformation of regionalization of Ningxia, the specific research and development process of this dataset is shown in Figure 1. (I) Collect data through surveys and visits, and establish a single factor indicator dataset. (II) The suitability levels of these indices for agricultural production were evaluated according to the spatial distribution of cropland, high standard farmland, high-yield fields, ACD projected areas, the plan of high-standard farmland in Ningxia for 2020, etc. (III) The necessary conditions for prioritized, protected, and restricted regions were determined by the evaluation of each index. (IV) According to the suitability levels of the different indices from III, the limiting indices and the levels for the agricultural development in Ningxia were identified. (V) Indicator thresholds for suitable agricultural development and agricultural development in key development regions, conservation development regions and restricted development regions were identified. (VI) A percentage area of each index of the suitable and limiting thresholds was calculated at a town scale. (VII) The criteria of the three regions were defined according to the spatial distribution of each index threshold in each town, and the regionalization types were classified according to the criteria.

Figure 1  Technical route for the strategic transformation of regionalization for Ningxia
agricultural comprehensive development

4 Results and Validation

4.1 Dataset Composition

The strategic transformation dataset of regionalization for the ACD of Ningxia in China consisted of eight files, stored as .dbf, .prj, .sbn, .sbx, .shp, .shx, .xml and .kml formats. The data size was 1.23 MB (0.98 MB after compression).

4.2 Data Results

We used Ningxia as an example to study the principles and methods of strategic transformation of regionalization for ACD. Based on the natural conditions of cultivated land, water, topography, landforms and ecology in the region, the geography comprehensive zoning method was adopted to formulate the agriculture in Ningxia. The Ningxia region was divided into three major regions (key development regions, protected development regions and restrictive development regions), and there were seven major types and 24 sub-categories (Table 2). Roman numerals were used in the type names: “I prioritized regions”, etc.

Figure 2  Spatial distribution of regionalization types for strategic transformation of Ningxia agricultural comprehensive development

The names of the subtypes reflect not only the seven major types of regionalization but also the ecological location of the division unit, such as “VI1 the restricted and protected regions with sand prevention and control” and “VII2 the restricted regions with sand prevention and control”. In addition, if the region had an obvious regional feature, we named the region according to the sequential geographic location, ecological zone, and development type; for example, “II2 the prioritized and restricted regions irrigated with water-saving reform in the Weining Plain”, “VII3 The restricted regions with forest and grass on Helan Mountain”, and so on.

In the first-level type of zoning, Ningxia was divided into key development zones (including 44 towns), “prioritized and restricted” regions (3 towns), protected regions (23 towns), “protected and restricted” regions (5 towns), “restricted and prioritized” regions (17 towns), “restricted and protected” regions (83 towns) and restricted regions (20 towns) (Figure 2).

Based on the primary division, Ningxia was further divided into 24 secondary types (Figure 3). Prioritized regions or “prioritized and restricted” regions were mainly distributed in the Yellow River Irrigation District in the north of Ningxia; protected regions or “protected and restricted” regions were mainly distributed in the Yellow River irrigated farmland in the plains of the Qingshui River in the southern loess hilly region. The ecological zone included the Hulu River tributary valley irrigated farmland area, the soil and water loss control functional zone of the Liangzhu hills on both sides of the Hulugou and other forest and grass protection or soil erosion areas, and the arid zone in central Ningxia. The restricted regions, “restricted and prioritized regions” and “restricted and protected” regions were mainly distributed in the northern part of Ningxia, the northern part of the Helan Mountain, the shrub grassland protection ecological function zone, the Helan Mountain forest nature protection ecological function zone, the eastern Helan Mountains floodplain forest and grass construction zone, the mountain torrent prevention and control of ecological functional areas, the grassland-desert vegetation restoration ecological function area of Taole terrace, the Yinchuan urban and wetland protection ecological function area, the Weining Beishan desert and semi-desert vegetation restoration ecological function area, the central arid zone and most of the southern hilly areas where outside the district's non-prioritized regions and protected regions.

5 Discussion and Conclusion

Figure 3  Spatial distribution of the regionalization subtypes of the strategy transformation for Ningxia agricultural comprehensive development

The strategic transformation of the ACD strategy is the basis for constructing the regional development pattern of ACD with “sustaining sustainability and enhancing competitiveness”. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, China has carried out large-scale national agricultural zoning work[1]. With the deeper systematic research on the types of agricultural regions, the theoretical system of China’s agricultural zoning was gradually formed in the 1990s[5], and models and methods for the study of agricultural suitability zoning have been gradually established[613]. In addition, since the 1950s, China has experienced comprehensive

Table 2  Scheme of the strategy transformation regionalization for Ningxia ACD[16]

Types

Subtypes

I. Prioritized

regions

I1 The prioritized regions with paddy-dryland rotations in south Yinchuan

I2 The prioritized regions with dryland in north Yinchuan and farmland with pumping irrigation in Taole

I3 The prioritized regions irrigated with water-saving reform in the Weining Plain

II. Prioritized and

restricted regions

II1 The prioritized regions with paddy-dryland rotations in south Yinchuan, and the restricted regions with sand prevention and control

II2 The prioritized and restricted regions irrigated with water-saving reform in the Weining Plain

III. Protected regions

III1 The protected regions with soil erosion and water-saving irrigation in the valley

III2 The protected regions with water-saving irrigation pumped from the Yellow River

IV. Protected and restricted regions

IV1 The protected regions with water-saving irrigation pumped from the Yellow River and the restricted regions with soil erosion

IV2 The protected regions with grass-crop rotations, and the restricted regions with forest

and grass

V. Restricted and prioritized regions

V1 The restricted regions with forest and grass on Helan Mountain, and the prioritized regions with irrigated dryland in north Yinchuan

V2 The restricted regions with forest and grass on Helan Mountain, and the prioritized regions with paddy-dryland rotations in south Yinchuan

V3 The restricted regions with desert and semi-desert, and the prioritized regions with irrigation water-saving transformation

V4 The restricted and the prioritized regions of desert steppe

VI. Restricted and protected regions

VI1 The restricted and protected regions with sand prevention and control

VI2 The restricted and protected regions with desert steppe

VI3 The restricted and protected regions with forest and grass

VI4 The restricted and protected regions with soil erosion

VI5 The restricted and protected regions with water conservation

VI6 The restricted and protected regions returning cropland to grassland

VII. Restricted regions

VII1 The restricted regions with urban construction

VII2 The restricted regions with sand prevention and control

VII3 The restricted regions with forest and grass on Helan Mountain

VII4 The restricted regions with desert steppe

VII5 The restricted regions being returned from cropland to grassland

natural geographical divisions[1723], main functional divisions[2427], soil and water conservation divisions[28], climate divisions[29], and land consolidation treatments[30] Valuable zoning results, such as ecosystem productivity zoning[31], ecological zoning[32], and geomorphic zoning[33], also play an important guiding role in the agricultural layout. Based on previous studies, this dataset scientifically analyzes Ningxia’s agricultural natural endowments and adopts the geography comprehensive zoning analysis method to obtain a ACD strategic transformation zoning plan for Ningxia.

This research is the first strategic transformation of regionalization for the ACD at the town scale in a province or an autonomous region, and it can be used in enquiries, analysis and decision-making.

The zoning results can provide an important basis for the overall layout of the ACD strategy transformation at the national level, provide a basis for the specific implementation of the ACD strategy transformation work of Ningxia, and promote the strategic transformation of ACD in other provinces or regions of the country.

The research on the strategic transformation of the ACD still needs to be improved. First, due to data limitations and Ningxia’s own environmental problems, environmental pollution indicators could not be considered in the establishment of the indicator system. However, as regional environmental pollution, especially soil pollution, continues to emerge, regional environmental pollution levels should also be included as indicators. Second, in the process of implementing comprehensive agricultural zoning, we should focus on the principles of local conditions, echelons, and policies, clarify the direction and focus of sustainable agricultural development, optimize the agricultural layout, and provide a scientific basis for achieving sustainable agricultural development.

Author Contributions

Shi, W. J. designed the algorithms of dataset, and contributed to the data processing and analysis. Wang, M. L. wrote the data paper.

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Co-Sponsors

Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences

The Geographical Society of China

Parteners

Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) Task Group on Preservation of and Access to Scientific and Technical Data in/for/with Developing Countries (PASTD)

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology

Digital Linchao GeoMuseum